But even if the actual rate were as much as a hundred times greater than these figures indicate, the intellectually most interesting questions would be, first, why science as a whole progresses so well despite being the work of mere human beings; second, how small the number of alleged misconduct is in this field compared with those in others, ranging from the world of finance, law, industry, journalism, and government at every level.
And third, why the few cases of highly publicized charges of misconduct in science can so severely undermine the trust and confidence of the public and its representatives in the integrity of research in general. The answer to those questions is in good part that there is indeed another, reinforcing reason for the widespread success of assaults on the credibility of scientific research. This is a potent and eloquent collective of just the sort that in the past has successfully challenged the worldview of their time and place.
The overall message evolving from that direction is no longer based only on stories of unacceptable behavior among a few scientists. The charge has been generalized and made even more serious: Put in starkest terms, the claim is that the most basic fraud committed by the members of the scientific community is their assertion that there are any truths to be found at all.
For there really is nothing there even to betray and falsify; and consequently, science is inherently not corrigible, even if all misconduct were eliminated. But now, the new consortium tells us, the arrow really goes the other way: not from knowledge to power, but from power to knowledge, and to a rather questionable knowledge at that.
The attempts to find generally applicable, shareable knowledge about what might be called reality—through the use of both the rational and the intuitive faculties of individual scientists, and through their skeptical but collaborative attempt to achieve some consensus—were not only doomed exercises, but ironically have led to the disasters that have marked the century. The whole modern era, launched under the flag of progress, has only led to tragedy. The extreme over-optimism of a Herbert Spencer or a Friedrich Engels can never be replaced by a soberer conception.
Progress is illusion. The globalizing program of science—to find basic unities and harmony transcending the level of apparent variety and discord—is held to be completely contrary to the post-modern drive that celebrates individual variety and the equality of standing of every conceivable style and utterance, every group and competing interest. Together, these slogans of the newly emerging sentiment indicate that the aim is not merely a call for the improvement of practice or for increased accountability, which is appropriate and being pursued through earnest actions, but at bottom is, for the main branch of the movement of critics, the delegitimation of science as one of the valid intellectual forces, a reshaping of the cultural balance, as we shall see in more detail below.
In this respect, there is a big difference here compared with the history of internal movements of protest, such as those of the logical positivists within philosophy, the Impressionists or Dadaists within art, the modern composers within music, etc. In all those cases, it was some of the best talent in the field that took up the task of renewal. Not so here—the motivating force is not renewal from within, but radical cultural politics from without Here we meet a clarifying fact: the contest before us is not new, but draws on historic forces of great strength and durability.
Therefore it will be instructive to trace some of the individual steps and stages in this remarkable development of the growing new view, so as to make it easier to extrapolate and to preview the new terrain we may have before us. While I can here only point briefly to a few recent milestones, I shall seek documentation in the recent writings of some of the most distinguished thinkers, rather than, say, through representatives of the Dionysian undercurrent.
Our first informant and guide is Isaiah Berlin, widely regarded as a most sensitive and humane historian of ideas. The collection of his essays, published as the fifth volume of his collected papers 19 , opens with a startling dichotomy.
Culture and Cultural Entities - Toward a New Unity of Science
One is the development of the natural sciences and technology, certainly the greatest success story of our time—to this great and mounting attention has been paid from all quarters. The other, without doubt, consists of the great ideological storms that have altered the lives of virtually all mankind: the Russian revolution and its aftermath—totalitarian tyrannies of both right and left and the explosion of nationalism, racism and, in places, of religious bigotry, which, interestingly enough, not one among the most perceptive social thinkers of the nineteenth century had ever predicted.
But such a response would not be to the point here.
This stunning connection, to be sure, is never explicitly spelled out by the author. The central core of the old belief system, one that lasted into the twentieth century, rested on three dogmas that the author summarized roughly as follows. Berlin , Out of these three ancient dogmas both institutionalized religions and the sciences developed to their present form although one might add that modern scientists, in their practice, have become aware of the need for proceeding antidogmatically, by conjecture, test, refutation, and assaying probability.
But, Isaiah Berlin now explains, this prominent component of the modern world picture is precisely what was rejected in a revolt by a two-centuries-old counter movement that has been termed Romanticism or the Romantic Rebellion. One of the greatest figures of Russian literature, together with Gogol, Dostoevski, and Tolstoy, Turgenev was a poet largely in the tradition of nineteenth-century Romanticism, inspired by Goethe, Schiller, and Byron, among others. Fathers and Sons was published in Its main figure is Yevgeny Vassilevich Bazarov, a university student of the natural sciences, expecting to get his degree as a physician shortly.
It is, as it turned out later, the very book Albert Einstein singled out in his Autobiographical Notes as one of the two or three that most impressed him as a boy, and caused him to turn to the pursuit of science. As if in revenge, fate brings him to the bedside of a villager dying of typhus, and he is made to help in the postmortem. But he cuts himself with his scalpel, and soon he is on the verge of delirium, a case of surgical poisoning. Frankenstein to the crew of Dr.
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Strangelove, causes surgical sepsis not only in each of them, but also in all those around them. Truth, authority and nobility come from having heroically suffered victimization. This assertion of the individual will over sharable reason has undermined what Isaiah Berlin had called the three pillars of the main Western tradition.
The Romantic Rebellion of course has also given us enduring masterpieces of art, music, and literature. But it originated, as it were, as an antithetical mirror image, created in reaction to the very existence of the earlier Enlightenment-based conception. As any revolt does, this one puts before us seemingly mutually incompatible choices. One is reminded here of the fact that extremes tend to meet each other. In a classic study 20 , Alan Beyerchen identified some of the other main pillars of Aryan science. There we find themes uncomfortably similar to those that are again fashionable.
The international character of the consensus mechanism for finding agreement was also abhorrent to the Nazi ideologues. Mechanistic materialism, denounced as the foundation of Marxism, was to be purged from science, and physics was to be reinterpreted to be connected not with the matter but with the spirit. We stand at the end of the Age of Reason. With the slogan of objective science the Professoriat only wanted to free itself from the very necessary supervision by the State.
That which is called the crisis of science is nothing more than the gentlemen are beginning to see on their own how they have gotten onto the wrong track with their objectivity and autonomy. A simple question that precedes every scientific enterprise is: Who is it who wants to know something, who is it who wants to orient himself in the world around him?
One issue was how technology, so useful to the state, could be fitted into the Romantic idea.
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In recent times, many antimodern movements, including Fundamentalist ones, have embraced technology. Because all these excesses were couched in phrases so reminiscent of currently used ones to delegitimate the intellectual authority of science, it is necessary to keep in mind that there is only a common ancestry of these views, rather than a necessarily causal connection between them.
This applies also to the next case, as I turn now to the position embraced by another distinguished contemporary icon among humanists, although an advocate rather than an analyst. His writings on this topic are—like those of Oswald Spengler, or the positivists—of interest here not because they represent majority positions, which they do not, but because they have the potential for wide resonance at a turning point of sentiments. Also, in this case we shall see that the relation between modern natural science and the rise of totalitarianism, which Isaiah Berlin considered to be only the result of an obscene historic counterreaction, now receives a much more sinister interpretation: the two become directly, causally linked.
In this sense, Western science gave birth to Communism; and with the fall of the latter, the former has also been irremediably compromised. Looking back on the twentieth century, other Central Europeans might characterize it as the release of the forces of brutal irrationality and bestiality, a reversion to ruthless autocracies in which the fates of millions were sealed by the whims of Kaiser Wilhelm, Hitler, Stalin, and their henchmen—rather than being the offspring of organized skepticism and the search for reasoned consensus, which are at the heart of science.
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I must let him put his case at some length in his own words; for while he eschews the documentation or balanced account of the scholar, he is instead in fine command of the rhetoric of persuasion, the ease of unspecified assertions and generalizations, and of the chief art of the dramatist, the suspension of disbelief. The result, for many of his readers, is hypnotic acquiescence without questioning the generalities and leaps in the prose.
The modern era has been dominated by the culminating belief, expressed in different forms, that the world—and Being as such—is a wholly knowable system governed by a finite number of universal laws that man can grasp and rationally direct for his own benefit. This era, beginning in the Renaissance and developing from the Enlightenment to socialism, from positivism to scientism, from the Industrial Revolution to the information revolution, was characterized by rapid advances in rational, cognitive thinking.
This, in turn, gave rise to the proud belief that man, as the pinnacle of everything that exists, was capable of objectively describing, explaining and controlling everything that exists, and of possessing the one and only truth about the world. It was an era in which there was a cult of depersonalized objectivity, an era in which objective knowledge was amassedand technologically exploited, an era of systems, institutions, mechanisms and statistical averages.
It was an era of freely transferable, existentially ungrounded information. It was an era of ideologies, doctrines, interpretations of reality, an era in which the goal was to find a universal theory of the world, and thus a universal key to unlock its prosperity. Communism was the perverse extreme of this trend. This era has created the first global, or planetary, technical civilization, but it has reached the limit of its potential, the point beyond which the abyss begins.
Regimes of science production and diffusion: towards a transverse organization of knowledge
Traditional science, with its usual coolness, can describe the different ways we might destroy ourselves, but it cannot offer truly effective and practicable instructions on how to avert them Was the education of the largest army of engineers the world has ever seen—people who would come to rule the entire Soviet bureaucracy—in such a way that they knew almost nothing of modern economics and politics an achievement of science?
It is the absolute of so-called objectivity: the objective, rational cognition of the scientific model of the world. Modern science, constructing its universally valid image of the world, thus crashes through the bounds of the natural world, which it can understand only as a prison of prejudices from which we must break out into the light of objectively verified truth.
It kills God and takes his place on the vacant throne, so that henceforth it would be science that would hold the order of being in its hand as its sole legitimate guardian and be the sole legitimate arbiter of all relevant truth. For after all, it is only science that rises above all individual subjective truths and replaces them with a superior, trans-subjective, trans-personal truth which is truly objective and universal. Modern rationalism and modern science, through the work of man that, as all human works, developed within our natural world, now systematically leave it behind, deny it, degrade and defame it—and, of course, at the same time colonize it Among them was one person especially well placed to ponder the values of science, and to draw conclusions of great import for the life of science in the US.
Here we arrive at the last of the stages on the road to the current understanding of the place of science in our culture.
evro-okna.es-pmr.com/templates Brown, Jr. One felt as if one glimpsed the shape of a possible future. But it is also important to note that later on Mr. However, while it is held among prominent persons who can indeed influence the direction of a cultural shift, the scientists at large, and especially the scientific establishment, have chosen to respond so far mostly with quiet acquiescence. If those trends should continue, and the self-designated postmodernists rise to controlling force, the new sensibility in the era to come will be very different indeed from the recently dominant one.
The first signifies the endless variety of the manifestations of Intentionality that, ontologically, qualifies all that belongs to the artifactual world of persons and that, accordingly, is accessible, cog- nitively and agentively, to the members of one or another such society; and the second signifies the spontaneous familiarity of the habits, prac- tices, customs, norms, behavior, and alterability of the sittlich stabilities of any Intentional world, such that, as with bilingualism, the Sitten of ev- ery culture are in principle intelligible and defensibly revisable in accord with the historied life of some pertinent society.
Intentionality, then, is the unique and ubiquitous feature of the ontology of enlanguaged cultures, and Sittlichkeit is the most basic ground for the appraisal of the norma- tive standing of any and all kinds of supposed values. Here, I must remind you of a final claim, already hinted, which helps to explain the strategic importance of a third feature of human cultures that I have yet to propose.
But the deeper reason rests with the difference between the very emergence of a macroscopic material world and the emergence of a macroscopic In- tentional world that manifests properties that do not obtain in any natural world that lacks language. The simple fact is that the Intentional description of the things of the cultural world cannot normally be reduced in any known way to permit analyses open to reductive identities of the sort just mentioned.
Hence we treat cultural entities if we admit them at all as ontologically different from mere physical entities; although, as we have seen, they can usually be matched in a regular way with things appropriately drawn from phys- ical or biological nature; so that Intentional entities and their adequated properties may be seen to be embodied or incarnate in corresponding nat- ural entities and their properties for instance, paintings and painted can- vases, actions and bodily movements, spoken words and uttered sounds, persons and members of Homo sapiens , but are not reducible in merely physical terms.
If, furthermore, we allow that the natural sciences are as, of course, they are cultural undertakings themselves, constrained in whatever ways the conceptual and cognitive powers of human persons are constrained, then it will not seem unreasonable to suggest that all the sciences are, fi- nally, human sciences insofar as they make systematic claims about the true facts and the explanation of such facts regarding natural things.
By a counter-process, certain forms of schizophrenia may be redefined in terms of hormonal or other biochemical imbalances in such a way as to retire their would-be Inten- tional standing.